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Preface ix

Meet the Author xiii

Chapter 1—Industry overview 1

The Mining Life Sequence 2

Mineral Exploration and Mining 4

Commodities 7

Participants in Exploration and Mining 9

Funding Mineral Exploration 12

References 13

Chapter 2—Geology 15

Plate Tectonics 16

Geologic Time 21

Minerals 23

Rocks 28

Structural Geology 37

References 45

Chapter 3—Mineral Deposits 47

The Formation of Mineral Deposits 48

Mineral Deposit Terminology 55

Styles and Forms of Mineralization 58

Mineral Deposit Types 63

References108 

Chapter 4—Mineral Exploration 113

Stages of Exploration and Types of Exploration Properties 114

Option Agreements 125

Joint Ventures and Exploration Alliances 129

Exploration Targets 130

Mineral Exploration Techniques 130

Geological Methods 138

Geochemical Methods 140

Geophysical Methods 151

Drilling Methods 158

References167 

Chapter 5—Mineral Resources and Reserves, and Mining Technical Studies 169

Mineral Resources and Reserves 170

Preliminary Economic Assessments, Pre-feasibility and Feasibility Studies 186

Reporting and Disclosure Standards for Exploration and Mining Companies (Canada’s NI43-101) 193

References 197

Chapter 6—Mining 199

Types of Mining Operations 200

Surface Mining (Open-Pit Mining) 204

Underground Mining 215

Chapter 7—Mineral Processing 231

Crushing and Grinding 232

Treating Gold±Silver Ores 237

Treating Base Metal Ores 244

Chapter 8—Environmental Considerations 253

The Modern Mining Environment  254

Sustainable Development 256

Environmental Assessment 259

Environmental Practices at Operating Mines 262

Acid Rock Drainage 266

Closure and Reclamation 268

References 274

Chapter 9—Evaluating Exploration Companies and Technical News Releases 277

Evaluating Exploration Companies 278

Interpreting Technical News Releases 282

Appendix A—Conversion Factors 287

Appendix B—Grade and Tonnage Tables 289

Glossary 297

 Index 317